A brief explanation about Prostate Cancer


A brief explanation about Prostate Cancer

Adenocarcinoma, the most common form of prostate cancer, is an uncontrolled proliferation of glandular type cells. Prostate cancer can grow and invade surrounding structures, obstruct the bladder outlet and metastasize widely often to bone where it causes painful lesions and pathological fractures. Obstruction can cause urinary retention which, if not relieved, can result in kidney damage. Although rare in men younger than 40 years, prostate cancer incidence increases with each subsequent decade and is present in virtually every man who reaches the ninth decade. The prostate is under the control of androgens, and prostate cancer is generally androgen sensitive in its early stages. Thus, one of the effective ways to control metastatic prostate cancer is with androgen deprivation, either by surgical castration, or by pharmacologically blocking androgen release or its binding to cancer cells. Progression of prostate cancer following androgen deprivation therapy is, however, typical and therapeutic options thereafter are limited and largely ineffective in the long term.

Many prostate cancers are indolent, (i.e., they grow slowly and metastasize infrequently, and as such may not require aggressive treatment. However, a significant number of prostate cancer cases behave aggressively, which can lead to clinical symptoms, metastatic disease and death. Presently there is no effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer beyond palliation of its effects. Understanding the underlying biology and pathophysiology of aggressive prostate cancer is essential to the development of directed pharmaceutical treatments.

Currently it is not possible to differentiate between the indolent and aggressive phenotypes of prostate cancer at an early stage, which in turn leads to overtreatment, generating adverse effects and unnecessary costs. To decrease the burden of treatment, new methods must be devised to stratify patients according to likelihood of disease progression but this will require the discovery and validation of reliable Copyright 2010 Brand Update 2015 National Urology Research Agenda 25 biomarkers of aggressiveness.

Prostate cancer shares molecular and cellular features with breast cancer and certain other malignancies. These shared characteristics should be exploited when possible and findings from other fields should be brought to bear on prostate cancer. Collaboration with social and behavioral scientists and specialists in rehabilitation can address issues of lifestyle, both in prevention and survivor quality of life. Training of urologists in methods of basic and translational research is also necessary to facilitate the application of research findings to the clinical setting.

Journal of Nephrology and Urology is an Open Access peer-reviewed publication that discusses current research and advancements in diagnosis and management of kidney disorders as well as related epidemiology, pathophysiology and molecular genetics

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