Diagnostic and interventional radiology
Diagnostic and interventional radiology is the branch of medical radiology that includes all diagnostic and interventional procedures that are performed under the guidance and control of radiologic methods. The procedures used in diagnostic and interventional radiology are less invasive than traditional open surgery. Radiologic technologists perform diagnostic imaging examinations and perform radiation therapy treatments. Technologists also assist radiologists with general radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound procedures.
Radiographs are images created with X-rays, and used for the evaluation of many bony and soft tissue structures. Fluoroscopy and angiography are special applications of X-ray imaging. Fluoroscopy is a technique where a fluorescent screen or image intensifying tube is connected to a closed-circuit television system to image internal structures of the body.
CT imaging uses X-rays in conjunction with computing algorithms to image tissues in the body. Imaging is usually performed in the axial plane; however, computer reconstructions can be rendered in other planes or to produce 3D images.
Medical ultrasonography uses ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) to visualize soft tissue structures in the body in real time. No radiation is involved, but the quality of the images obtained using ultrasound is highly dependent on the skill of the person performing the exam. Ultrasound procedures are best used for ante natal checkups. It is not harmful to fetus nor to the mother.
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRI uses strong magnetic fields to align spinning atomic nuclei (usually hydrogen protons) within body tissues, then disturbs the axis of rotation of these nuclei and observes the radio frequency signal generated as the nuclei return to their baseline status.
Nuclear medicine imaging involves the administration into the patient of substances labelled with radionuclides or radiopharmaceuticals which have affinity for particular tissues. Generally speaking, Technecium-99m (half-life 6.02 hours) is the radionuclide used. The heart, lungs, thyroid, liver, gallbladder, and bones are commonly evaluated for particular conditions using these techniques.
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Journal of Medical Physics and Applied Sciences
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