Infertility of Male and Female Reproductive Systems


Infertility is a disease of both male and female reproductive systems and infertility is defined by the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months. Infertility may affect millions of people of reproductive age throughout the world and it may impact on their families. Infertility is commonly caused by the problems associated with ovulation .ovulation means the monthly release of an egg from the ovaries. Some problems stop an egg being released at all, while others prevent an egg being released during some cycles but not others. Ovulation problems can be a result of: polycystic ovary syndrome.

Signs of fertility in women, signs of infertility may include Pain during sex, Obesity, Hormone changes, Irregular menstrual cycle, Heavy, long, or painful periods, Dark or pale menstrual blood, Underlying medical conditions and Not getting pregnant. Pain during sex or it is also named as dyspareunia; dyspareunia can be a sign of an underlying health problem that may influence a woman’s fertility. Examples like endometriosis, and fibroids. Endometriosis is a risk factor for infertility. Other symptoms of endometriosis may include chronic pelvic pain this pain is not only during menstruation, pain during sex, back pain, fatigue, nausea, irregular periods and dark pale menstrual blood, menstrual blood is usually bright red at beginning and it may get dark on following days. Irregular menstrual cycle, including missing periods, can contribute to infertility; it means a woman may not be regularly ovulating. Ovulation is when the ovary releases an egg. In hormone changes  a doctor can test for some hormonal issues like  unexplained weight gain, nipple discharge, cold feet and hands, reduced sex drive or loss of sexual desire, facial hair in females, severe acne, thinning hair on the top of the head. Underlying medical conditions may affect fertility in women may include damage to the fallopian tubes or ovaries, premature menopause, cancer and cancer treatments. In 2018 found that obesity might negatively affect reproductive health. The primary sign of infertility is not getting pregnant after trying it from certain times.

Signs of fertility in men, signs of infertility may include Hormonal imbalances, erectile dysfunction, obesity, and changes in testicles. Hormonal imbalances can affect a man’s fertility. Testosterone is a key hormone for male fertility, so problems with the testes that produce this hormone may lead to infertility. The pituitary gland produces luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and these two hormones signal to the testes to make sperm and testosterone. In changes in testicles healthy testicles are an important aspect of male fertility. Small testicles might feel “tight” or it may be another sign of hormone issues. Obesity can increase the risk for other conditions which impact on man’s fertility such as sperm quality and sexual dysfunction. And some other risk factors for infertility are age, poor diet, smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, stress, history of sexually transmitted infections.

Treatment for men and women for men is to change his life style, Medications, Surgery, Sperm retrieval and the treatment for women is to intrauterine insemination, Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs, Surgery to restore fertility.